Adhikari K, Fuentes-Guajardo M, Quinto-Sánchez M, Mendoza-Revilla J, Camilo Chacón-Duque J, Acuña-Alonzo V, et al. A genome-wide association scan implicates DCHS2, RUNX2, GLI3, PAX1 and EDAR in human facial variation. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11616.
Adhikari K, et al. A GWAS in Latin Americans highlights the convergent evolution of lighter skin pigmentation in Eurasia. Nat Commun. 2019;10:358.
American Association of Physical (Biological) Anthropologists. AAPA statement on race and racism. http://physanth.org/about/position-statements/aapa-statement-race-and-racism-2019/. Accessed 10 June 2019.
American Kennel Club. www.akc.org. Accessed 5 Apr 2019.
American Society of Human Genetics. ASHG denounces attempts to link genetics and racial supremacy. Am J Hum Genet. 2018;103:636.
Bamshad MJ, Wooding S, Watkins WS, Ostler CT, Batzer MA, Jorde LB. Human population genetic structure and inference of group membership. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72:578–89.
Beleza S, Johnson NA, Candille SI, Absher DM, Coram MA, Lopes J, et al. Genetic architecture of skin and eye color in an African-European admixed population. PLoS Genet. 2013;9(3):e1003372.
Bolnick D. Individual ancestry inference and the reification of race as a biologically phenomenon. In: Koenig BA, Lee SS, Richardson SS, editors. Revisiting race in a genomic age. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick; 2008. p. 70–85.
Botigué LR, Song S, Scheu A, Gopalan S, Pendleton AL, Oetjens M, et al. Ancient European dog genomes reveal continuity since the Early Neolithic. Nat Commun. 2017;8:16082.
Boulter AC, Quinlan J, Miró-Herrans AT, Pearson LN, Todd NL, HEAT Steering Committee, Gravlee CC, Mulligan CJ. Interaction of Alu polymorphisms and novel measures of discrimination in association with blood pressure in African Americans living in Tallahassee, Florida. Hum Biol. 2015;87(4):295–305.
Boyko AR, Boyko RH, Boyko CM, Parker HG, Castelhano M, Corey L, et al. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history. Proc Nat Acad USA. 2009;106(33):13903–8.
Brace CL. “Race” is a four-letter word: the genesis of the concept. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005.
Cadieu E, Neff MW, Quignon P, Walsh K, Chase K, Parker HG, et al. Coat variation in the domestic dog is governed by variants in three genes. Science. 2009;326:150–3.
Candille SI, Absher DM, Beleza S, Bauchet M, McEvoy B, Garrison NA, et al. Genome-wide association studies of quantitatively measured skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in four European populations. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(10):e48294.
Castle WE. Dog crosses and human crosses: a review. J Hered. 1942;33(7):249–52.
Chase K, Carrier DR, Adler FR, Jarvik T, Ostrander EA, Lorentzen TD, Lark KG. Genetic basis for systems of skeletal quantitative traits: principal component analysis of the canid skeleton. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 2002;99:9930–5.
Crawford NG, Kelly DE, Hansen MEB, Beltrame MH, Fan S, Bowman SL, et al. Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations. Science. 2017;358(6365):eaan8433.
Dannemann M, Kelso J. The contribution of Neanderthals to phenotypic variation in modern humans. Am J Hum Genet. 2017;101(4):578–89.
Dar-Nimrod I, Heine SJ. Genetic essentialism: on the deceptive determinism of DNA. Psychol Bull. 2011;137(5):800–18.
Darwin C. Descent of man. London: John Murray; 1871.
Dobzhansky T. A review of some fundamental concepts and problems of population genetics. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 1955;20:1–15.
Dobzhansky T. Mankind Evolving: The Evolution of the Human Species. New Haven CT: Yale University Press; 1962.
Donovan BM. Learned inequality: racial labels in the biology curriculum can affect the development of racial prejudice. J Res Sci Teach. 2017;54(3):379–411.
Donovan BM, Semmens R, Keck P, Brimhall E, Busch KC, Weindling M, Duncan A, Stuhlsatz M, Bracey ZB, Bloom M, Kowalski S, Salazar B. Toward a more humane genetics education: learning about the social and quantitative complexities of human genetic variation research could reduce racial bias in adolescent and adult populations. Sci Educ. 2019;2019:1–32.
Edwards AWF. Human genetic diversity: Lewontin’s fallacy. BioEssays. 2003;25:798–801.
Eriksson N, Macpherson JM, Tung JY, Hon LS, Naughton B, Saxonov S, et al. Web-based, participant-driven studies yield novel genetic associations for common traits. PLoS Genet. 2010;6(6):1–20.
Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM. Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics. 1992;131(2):479–91.
Frantz LAF, Mullin VE, Pionnier-Capitan M, Lebrasseur O, Ollivier M, Perri A, Linderholm A, Mattiangeli V, Teasdale MD, Dimopoulos EA, Tresset A, Duffraisse M, McCormick F, Bartosiewicz L, Gál E, Nyerges EA, Sablin MV, Bréhard S, Mashkour M, Bălăşescu A, Gillet B, Hughes S, Chassaing O, Hitte C, Vigne J-D, Dobney K, Hänni C, Bradley DG, Larson G. Genomic and archaeological evidence suggest a dual origin of domestic dogs. Science. 2016;352(6290):1228–31.
Fryar CD, Gu Q, Ogden CL, Flegal KM. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 2011–2014. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat. 2016;3(39):1–46.
Gibbons A. Shedding light on skin color. Science. 2014;346(6212):934–6.
Gravlee L. How race becomes biology: embodiment of social inequality. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;39(1):47–57.
Gravlee CC, Non AL, Mulligan CJ. Genetic ancestry, social classification, and racial inequalities in blood pressure in Southeastern Puerto Rico. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(9):e6821. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006821.
Guenther CA, Tasic B, Luo L, Bedell MA, Kingsley DM. A molecular basis for classic blond hair color in Europeans. Nat Genet. 2014;46:748–52.
Haldane JBS. The argument from animals to men: an examination of its validity for anthropology. J R Anthropol Inst G B Irel. 1956;86(2):1–14.
Hardimon MO. The idea of a scientific concept of race. J Philos Res 2012;37:249–82
Harkinson J. Meet the white nationalist trying to ride the trump train to lasting power. Mother Jones 27 October 2016. https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2016/10/richard-spencer-trump-alt-right-white-nationalist/. Accessed 5 Apr 2019.
Harrington P. No mongrels need apply. Minn Rev. 2009;73:219–30.
Hedges SB, Marin J, Suleski M, Paymer M, Kumar S. Tree of life reveals clock-like speciation and diversification. Mol Biol Evol. 2015;32(4):835–45.
Higham T, Douka K, Wood R, Ramsey CB, Brock F, Basell L, et al. The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance. Nature. 2014;512:306–9.
Hradecka L, Bartos L, Svobodova I, Sales J. Heritability of behavioural traits in domestic dogs: a meta-analysis. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2015;170:1–13.
Hunley KL, Healy ME, Long JC. The global pattern of gene identity variation reveals a history of long-range migrations, bottlenecks, and local mate exchange: implications for biological race. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;139:35–46.
Irion DN, Schaffer AL, Famula TR, Eggleston ML, Hughes SS, Pedersen NC. Analysis of genetic variation in 28 dog breed populations with 100 microsatellite markers. J Hered. 2003;94(1):81–7.
Jackson JP Jr, Depew DJ. Darwinism, democracy, and race: American anthropology and evolutionary biology in the twentieth century. New York: Routledge; 2017.
Jones P, Chase K, Martin A, Davern P, Ostrander EA, Lark KG. Single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based association mapping of dog stereotypes. Genetics. 2008;179(2):1033–44.
Kaelin CB, Barsh GS. Genetics of pigmentation in dogs and cats. Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2013;1(1):125–56.
Kaplan JM, Winther RG. Realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about race. Philos Sci 2014;81(5):1039–52.
Kenny EE, Timpson NJ, Sikora M, Yee MC, Moreno-Estrada A, Eng C, Huntsman S, Burchard EG, Stoneking M, Bustamante CD, Myles S. Melanesian blond hair is caused by an amino acid change in TYRP1. Science. 2012;336(6081):554.
Koenig BA, Soo-Jin Lee S, Richardson SS. Revisiting race in a genomic age. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press; 2008.
Koskinen MT. Individual assignment using microsatellite DNA reveals unambiguous breed identification in the domestic dog. Anim Genet. 2003;34(4):297–301.
Kuhlwilm M, Gronau I, Hubisz MJ, de Filippo C, Prado-Martinez J, Kircher M, et al. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals. Nature. 2016;530(7591):429.
Lamason RL, Mohideen MA, Mest JR, Wong AC, Norton HL, Aros MC, et al. SLC24A5, a putative cation exchanger, affects pigmentation in zebrafish and humans. Science. 2005;310(5755):1782–6.
Lawson DJ, Van Dorp L, Falush D. A tutorial on how not to over-interpret STRUCTURE and ADMIXTURE bar plots. Nat Commun. 2018;9:3258.
Lee TW, Grogan KE, Liepkalns JS. Making evolution stick: using sticky notes to teach the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Evol Educ Outreach 2017;10:11.
Leroy G. Genetic diversity, inbreeding and breeding practices in dogs: results from pedigree analyses. Vet J. 2011;189:177–82.
Lewontin RC. The apportionment of human diversity. Evol Biol. 1972;6:381–98.
Li JZ, Absher DM, Tang H, Southwick AM, Casto AM, Ramachandran S, Cann HM, Barsh GS, Feldman M, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Myers RM. Worldwide human relationships inferred from genome-wide patterns of variation. Science 2008;319 (5866):1100–4.
Livingstone FB. On the nonexistence of human races. Curr Anthropol. 1962;3:279–81.
Lombardo PA. Miscegenation, eugenics, and racism: historical footnotes to loving v. virginia. UC Davis L Rev 1987–1988;21:421–52.
Marks J. Ten facts about human variation. In: Muehlenbein MP, editor. Human evolutionary biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2010.
Marks J. The origins of anthropological genetics. Curr Anthropol. 2012a;53:S161–72.
Marks J. Why be against Darwin? Creationism, racism, and the roots of anthropology. Yrbk Phys Anthropol. 2012b;55:95–104.
Marks J. Essay review: solving the riddle of race. Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci. 2016;59:161–4.
Marks J. Is science racist?. Malden: Polity Press; 2017.
Martin AR, Lin M, Granka JM, Myrick JW, Liu X, Sockell A, et al. An unexpectedly complex architecture for skin pigmentation in humans. Cell. 2017;171:1340–53.
McLean S-A. Social problems, structural issues, and unsettling science. Am Anthropol. 2019;121(2):480–1.
Mech LD, Barber-Meyer SM, Erb J. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(6):e0156682.
Medland SE, Nyholt DR, Painter JN, McEvoy BP, McRae AF, Zhu G, et al. Common variants in the trichohyalin gene are associated with straight hair in Europeans. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;85(5):750–5.
Mehrkam LR, Wynne CDL. Behavioral differences among breeds of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris): current status of the science. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2014;155:12–27.
Montagu A. Man’s most dangerous myth: the fallacy of race. New York: Meridian; 1942.
Nan H, Kraft P, Qureshi AA, Guo Q, Chen C, Hankinson SE, Hu FB, et al. Genome-wide association study of tanning phenotype in a population of European ancestry. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2250–7.
Norton HL, Kittles RA, Parra E, McKeigue P, Mao X, Cheng K, et al. Genetic evidence for the convergent evolution of light skin in Europeans and East Asians. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24(3):710–22.
Novembre J. Pritchard, Stephens, and Donnelly on population structure. Genetics. 2016;204:391–3.
Parker HG, Kim LV, Sutter NB, Carlson S, Lorentzen TD, Malek TB, Johnson GS, DeFRance HB, Ostrander EA, Kruglyak L. Genetic structure of the purebred domestic dog. Science. 2004;304:1160–4.
Parker HG, Harris A, Dreger DL, Davis BW, Ostrander EA. The bald and the beautiful: hairlessness in domestic dog breeds. Phil Trans R Soc B. 2017;372:20150488.
Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics. 2000;155(2):945–59.
Quillen EE, Bauchet M, Bigham AW, Delgado-Burbano ME, Faust FX, Klimentidis YC, et al. OPRM1 and EGFR contribute to skin pigmentation differences between indigenous Americans and Europeans. Hum Genet. 2012;131(7):1073–80.
Quillen EE, Norton HL, Parra EJ, et al. Shades of complexity: new perspectives on the evolution and genetic architecture of human skin. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2019;168(S67):4–26.
Quinlan J, Pearson LN, Clukay CJ, Mitchell MM, Boston Q, Gravlee CC, Mulligan CJ. Genetic loci and novel discrimination measures associated with blood pressure variation in African Americans living in Tallahassee. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(12):e0167700. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167700.
Racimo F, Sankararaman S, Nielsen R, Huerta-Sanchez E. Evidence for archaic adaptive introgression in humans. Nat Rev Genet. 2015;16(6):359–71.
Reich D, Patterson N, Kircher M, Delfin F, Nandineni MR, Pugach I, et al. Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;89(4):516–28.
Relethford J. Race and global patterns of phenotypic variation. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;39(1):16–22.
Rimbault M, Beale HC, Schoenebeck JJ, Hoopes BC, Allen JJ, Kilroy-Glynn P, Wayne RK, Sutter NB, Ostrander EA. Derived variants at six genes explain nearly half of size reduction in dog breeds. Genome Res. 2013;23(12):1985–95.
Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, Zhivotovsky LA, Feldman MW. Genetic structure of human populations. Science. 2002;298:2381–5.
Santos RV, Fry PH, Monteiro S, Maio MC, Rodrigues JC, Bastos-Rodrigues L, Pena SDJ. Color, race, and genomic ancestry in Brazil: dialogues between anthropology and genetics. Curr Anthropol. 2009;50(6):787–819.
Sarich and Miele. Race: the reality of human differences. Cambridge: Westview Press; 2004.
Scott JP, Fuller JL. Genetics and the social behavior of dogs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1965.
Shannon LM, Boyko RH, Castelhano M, Corey E, Hayward JJ, McLean C, et al. Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2015;112(44):13639–44.
Shriver MD, Parra EJ, Dios S, Bonilla C, Norton H, Jovel C, et al. Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping. Hum Genet. 2003;112(4):387–99.
Simonti CN, Vernot B, Bastarache L, Bottinger E, Carrell DS, Chisholm RL, et al. The phenotypic legacy of admixture between modern humans and Neandertals. Science. 2016;351(6274):737–41.
Sims M, Diez-Roux AV, Dudley A, Gebreab S, Wyatt SB, Bruce MA, James SA, Robinson JC, Williams DR, Taylor HA. Perceived discrimination and hypertension among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(Suppl 2):S258–65. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300523.
Smith SL. Single (sub)species then and now: an examination of the nonracial perspective of C. Loring Brace. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2018;165:104–25.
Snipp CM. Racial measurement in the American census: past practices and implications for the future. Ann Rev Sociol. 2003;29:563–88.
Stone HR, McGreevy PD, Starling MJ, Forkman B. Associations between domestic-dog morphology and behaviour scores in the dog mentality assessment. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(2):1–14.
Sulem P, Gudbjartsson DF, Stacey SN, Helgason A, Rafnar T, Magnusson KP, et al. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans. Nat Genet. 2007;39(12):1443–52.
Sulem P, Gudbjartsson DF, Stacey SN, Helgason A, Rafnar T, Jakobsdottir M, et al. Two newly identified genetic determinants of pigmentation in Europeans. Nat Genet. 2008;40(7):835–7.
Sussman RW. The myth of race: The troubling persistence of an unscientific idea. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 2014.
Sutter NB, Bustamante CD, Chase K, Gray MM, Zhao K, Zhu L, Padhukasahasram B, et al. A single IGF1 allele is a major determinant of small size in dogs. Science. 2007;316(5821):112–5.
Sutter NB, Mosher DS, Gray MM, Ostrander EA. Morphometrics within dog breeds are highly reproducible and dispute Rensch’s rule. Mamm Genome. 2008;19(10–12):713–23.
Thalmann O, Shapiro B, Cui P, Schuenemann VJ, Sawyer SK, Greenfield DL, Germonpré MB, et al. Complete mitochondrial genomes of ancient canids suggest a European origin of domestic dogs. Science. 2013;342(6160):871–4.
The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium. A global reference for human genetic variation. Nature. 2015;526(7571):68–74.
Torres JB, Colón GAT. Racial experience as an alternative operationalization of race. Hum Biol. 2015;87(4):306–13.
Townshend E. Darwin’s dogs: how Darwin’s pets helped form a world-changing theory of evolution. London: Frances Lincoln; 2009.
United States Census Bureau. www.census.gov. Accessed 5 Apr 2019.
Valverde P, Healy E, Jackson I, Rees JL, Thody AJ. Variants of the melanocyte—stimulating hormone receptor gene are associated with red hair and fair skin in humans. Nat Genet. 1995;11(3):328–30.
Vance M. Biology teaching in a racist society. In: Gill D, Levidow L, editors. Anti-racist science teaching. London: Free Association Books; 1987.
Vernot B, Tucci S, Kelso J, Schraiber JG, Wolf AB, Gittelman RM, et al. Excavating Neandertal and Denisovan DNA from the genomes of Melanesian individuals. Science. 2016;352(6282):235–9.
Vilà C, Savolainen P, Maldonado JE, Amorim IR, Rice JE, Honeycutt RL, Crandall KA, Lundeberg J, Wayne RK. Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science. 1997;276(5319):1687–9.
vonHoldt BM, Pollinger JP, Lohmueller KE, Han E, Parker HG, Quignon P, Degenhardt JD, Boyko AR, Earl DA, Auton A, Reynolds A, Bryc K, Brisbin A, Knowles JC, Mosher DS, Spady TC, Elkahloun A, Geffen E, Pilot M, Jedrzejewski W, Greco C, Randi E, Bannasch D, Wilton A, Shearman J, Musiani M, Cargill M, Jones PG, Qian Z, Huang W, Ding Z-L, Zhang Y, Bustamante CD, Ostrander EA, Novembre J, Wayne RK. Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication. Nature. 2010;464:898–902.
Wade N. A troublesome inheritance: genes, race and human history. New York: Penguin; 2014.
Wagner JK, Yu J-H, Ifekwunigwe JO, Harrell TM, Bamshad MJ, Royal CD. Anthropologists’ views on race, ancestry, and genetics. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2017;162(2):318–27.
Wang GD, Zhai W, Yang HC, Wang L, Zhong L, Liu YH, et al. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world. Cell Res. 2016;26(1):21–33.
Weaver H. “Becoming in kind”: race, class, gender, and nation in cultures of dog rescue and dogfighting. Am Q. 2013;65(3):689–709.
Weiss KM. The tales genes tell (or not): a century of exploration. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2018;165:741–53.
Weiss K, Fullterton SM. Racing around, getting nowhere. Evol Anthropol. 2005;14:165–9.
Weiss K, Lambert B. Does history matter? Evol Anthropol. 2010;19:92–7.
Weiss K, Lambert B. When the time seems ripe: eugenics, the annals, and the subtle persistence of typological thinking. Ann Hum Genet. 2011;75:334–43.
Weiss K, Lambert B. What type of person are you? Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014;6:1–14.
Weiss K, Long JC. Non-Darwinian estimation: my ancestors, my genes’ ancestors. Genome Res. 2009;19:703–10.
Westgate GE, Ginger RS, Green MR. The biology and genetics of curly hair. Exp Dermatol. 2017;26(6):483–90.
Wood AR, Esko T, Yang J, Vedantam S, Pers TH, Gustafsson S, et al. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height. Nat Genet. 2014;46(11):1173–86.
Yudell M, Roberts D, DeSalle R, Tishkoff S. Taking race out of human genetics. Science. 2016;351(6273):564–5.
Zack N. The fluid symbol of mixed race. Hypatia. 2010;25(4):875–90.