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Table 6 Mixed effect models

From: European first-year university students accept evolution but lack substantial knowledge about it: a standardized European cross-country assessment

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
Est. (b) SE CI95 Est. (b) SE CI95 Est. (b) SE CI95 Est. (b) SE CI95 Est. (b) SE CI95
Fixed effects
 Intercept 34.18*** 1.3 [31.64; 36.72] 31.72*** 1.3 [29.16; 34.26] 29.37*** 1.28 [26.86; 31.85] 33.36*** 1.23 [30.98; 35.75] 33.12*** 1.23 [30.69; 35.54]
 Age − 0.04 0.06 [− 0.17; 0.08] − 0.04 0.06 [− 0.16; 0.09] 0 0.06 [− 0.12; 0.13] − 0.01 0.06 [− 0.13; 0.11] 0 0.06 [− 0.12; 0.12]
 Sex (male)
 Female − 1.15*** 0.13 [− 1.41; − 0.89] − 1.15*** 0.13 [− 1.42; − 0.90] − 0.88*** 0.13 [− 1.14; − 0.63] − 0.59*** 0.13 [− 0.84; − 0.35] − 0.61*** 0.13 [− 0.86; − 0.36]
 University program (bio-related)
  Non-biology     − 0.33 0.18 [− 0.68; 0.01] − 0.06 0.17 [− 0.40; 0.28] − 0.03 0.17 [− 0.36; 0.30] − 0.01 0.17 [− 0.34; 0.32]
 Interest in biology     0.47*** 0.05 [0.38; 0.56] 0.37*** 0.05 [0.27; 0.46] 0.32*** 0.05 [0.23; 0.41] 0.32*** 0.05 [0.23; 0.41]
  Knowledge        0.37*** 0.03 [0.31; 0.42] 0.24*** 0.03 [0.19; 0.29] 0.23*** 0.03 [0.18; 0.29]
 Religious faith           − 0.12*** 0 [− 0.12; − 0.11] − 0.11*** 0.01 [− 0.12; − 0.10]
  Denomination (none)                
  Protestant              − 0.67** 0.25 [− 1.18; − 0.19]
  Christian free Churches              − 0.53 0.28 [− 1.07; 0.01]
  Catholic              0.29 0.18 [− 0.06; 0.65]
  Orthodox              0.09 0.26 [− 0.41; 0.60]
  Muslim              − 1.91*** 0.45 [− 2.78; − 1.00]
  Other              − 0.27 0.26 [− 0.77; 0.23]
  Std. dev   CI95 Std. dev   CI95 Std. dev   CI95 Std. dev   CI95 Std. dev   CI95
Variance components      
 Country (Intercept) 1.59   [1.02; 2.04] 1.32   [0.85; 1.72] 1.01   [0.63; 1.32] 0.99   [0.62; 1.29] 1.02   [0.63; 1.33]
 Residual 4.63   [4.55; 4.71] 4.58   [4.50; 4.66] 4.52   [4.44; 4.60] 4.3   [4.23; 4.38] 4.29   [4.21; 4.36]
Model diagnostics      
 AIC 36,849    36,698    36,530    35,920    35,889   
 BIC 36,883    36,745    36,584    35,981    35,990   
 \({X}^{2}\) 73.50***    155.30***    169.81***    611.62***    43.51***   
 ICC 0.1    0.08    0.05    0.05    0.05   
 Fixed Pseudo-R2 0.01    0.04    0.08    0.19    0.19   
 Total Pseudo-R2 0.11    0.11    0.13    0.23    0.23   
  1. Dependent variable: acceptance of evolution (ATEVO). Fixed effects: age, sex (reference male), university program (reference biology-related), interest in biology, knowledge about evolution (KAEVO), religious faith (PERF), denomination (reference none). Random intercept: country. Estimates (Est.), standard-errors (SE) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95) are reported for all fixed effects. Standard deviation (Std. Dev.) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95) are reported for variance components. Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as well as LRT results (\({X}^{2}\)) are reported for all models. nstudents = 6227; ncountries = 20. *** p < .0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05