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Table 8 Summary of GAENE studies on undergraduate students and recommendations for future work

From: Measuring evolution acceptance using the GAENE: influences of gender, race, degree-plan, and instruction

  Smith et al. Metzger et al. This study Recommendation
Sample characteristic
 Sample size 155 High school; 516 undergraduate 105 Undergraduate 770 Undergraduate None
 Geographic region Across U.S. Midwestern U.S. Northeastern U.S. More studies in other geographic regions
 Demographics 80% female; 37% URM 57% female; 22% URM More studies reporting and analyzing demographics
 Mean GAENE scores By-item (5 max): 3.78
i.e. 3.02/4
By-person (65 max): 51.7 [post]
i.e. 41.36/52
By-item (4 max): 3.25 [pre], 3.41 [post]
By-person (52 max): 42.22 [pre], 44.3 [post]
Report by-item and by-person scores for ease of comparison across studies
 Dimensionality (Internal structure validity) One-dimensional One-dimensional One-Dimensional None
 Item fit Items 2–14 acceptable at single time-point Items 2–14 acceptable in post-survey; Pre-survey not present Items 2–14 acceptable in pre-survey; Item 13 poor fit in post-survey Investigate pre- post- dynamics of item 13, esp. in course with NOS unit. Remove or modify item
 Rating scale functioning (RSF) of items GAENE 2.1: Unclear how per-item RSF assessed. 7 and 13 had noise GAENE 2.1: Per-item RSF not assessed GAENE 1.0: RSF poor for items 7, 9, and 13 Investigate RSF for each item. Remove or modify items 7, 9, and 13
 Overall reliabilities Acceptable
Person: 0.91
Item: 0.99
Person: 0.93
Item: 0.86
Person: 0.86–0.88
Item: 0.89–0.9
 Wright map Large gap at high end Large gap at high end Add more difficult items
 Impact of instruction Pre < post More pre- post- data in large samples
 Impact of gender and race URM < Non-URM
F = M
No effect size reported
URM < White
Asian < White
F < M
η2G = 0.02–0.05
More studies with gender and race, and effect sizes for each
 Impact of degree plan Bio STEM =
Non-Bio-STEM =
More studies of degree plan to corroborate findings
 Variance explained (R2) by all modeled variables Post-course R2 ~ 11% Pre-course R2 ~ 9% More reporting of variance explained by student variables
 External structure validity High correlation with both dimensions of the MATE High correlation with MATE facts; moderate correlation with MATE credibility Correlate GAENE with other acceptance instruments like the I-SEA and MATE