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Table 9 Mean change in students’ pre- to post-instruction misconception numbers related to teachers’ with and without statement misconception

From: Teachers teaching misconceptions: a study of factors contributing to high school biology students’ acquisition of biological evolution-related misconceptions

BEL statement Student mean misconception number change (SD)    
# Category Teacher with misconception Teacher without misconception t df p
1 SSMT1 −0.19 −0.01 2.02 520 0.04b
(0.61) (0.65)
2 SSMT2 0.08 0.05 0.48 532 0.63
(0.53) (0.52)
3 SSMT3 0.11 0.07 0.56 398 0.57
(0.61) (0.56)
4 SSMT4 −0.05 −0.01 0.57 495 0.57
(0.55) (0.58)
5 SSMT5 0.10 0.01 1.45 502 0.15
(0.62) (0.60)
6 IE1 −0.09 0.02 1.57 534 0.12
(0.60) (0.59)
7 IE2 −0.12 −0.04 1.05 516 0.29
(0.64) (0.62)
8 IE3 −0.11 −0.03 0.85 534 0.39
(0.66) (0.79)
9 IE4 0.12 0.13 0.15 534 0.88
(0.71) (0.65)
10 IE5 −0.04 −0.04 0.11 514 0.91
(0.70) (0.63)
11 NE1 0.06 0.14 1.16 530 0.25
(0.67) (0.64)
12 NE2 −0.05 −0.05 0.15 534 0.88
(0.46) (0.53)
13 NE3 0.02 0.08 1.11 511 0.27
(0.54) (0.59)
14 NE4 0.05 −0.01 0.91 534 0.36
(0.62) (0.59)
15 ME1 −0.11 −0.06 1.44 534 0.15
(0.72) (0.70)
16 ME2 0.13 0.05 1.52 534 0.13
(0.63) (0.61)
17 ME3 0.06 0.05 0.05 534 0.96
(0.66) (0.58)
18 ME4 0.14 0.05 1.83 521 0.07
(0.54) (0.66)
19 ME5a ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
20 ESE1 0.22 −0.01 3.96 511 0.0001c
(0.59) (0.59)
21 ESE2 −0.09 −0.01 1.42 521 0.16
(0.59) (0.58)
22 ESE3 0.02 −0.01 0.62 486 0.54
(0.59) (0.58)
23 ESE4 0.05 −0.02 1.12 534 0.26
(0.59) (0.59)
  1. aAnalysis was not conducted as no teacher possessed the statement misconception. bDifference between groups was statistically significant at p < .05. cDifference between groups was statistically significant at p < .01. BEL, Biological Evolution Literacy; ESE, evidence supporting evolution; IE, intentionality of evolution; ME; mechanisms of evolution; NE, nature of evolution; SD, standard deviation; SSMT, science, scientific methodology, and terminology.