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Table 1 Table of major features that imply bipedal locomotion (adapted from Harcourt-Smith (2007)

From: The First Hominins and the Origins of Bipedalism

Anatomical feature Functional significance
Anteriorly positioned and horizontal foramen magnum Reflects vertical positioning of spine
S-shaped spine Helps efficiently transfer weight of upright trunk to hip joint
Short, curved, and wide iliac blades Support of upright trunk
Wide sacrum Reflects increased loading on pelvis due to upright trunk
Large acetabulum Increased loading through hip joint
Thick inferior neck of femur Increased loading through hip joint
Femur angles in medially from hip to knee Places lower leg closer to midline of body. Helps with balance when walking on two legs
Relatively long and robust ankle region Increases efficiency of foot leverage during walking
Arched foot Shock absorption during walking and running
Fully adducted big toe Efficient weight transfer during toe-off phase of gait cycle