# Table 5 Mean (± S.E.) developmental level scores on selected laboratory challenges

Laboratory challenge variables N
(# Students)
Early Semester Lab Module (Evolution and Scientific Thinking) Mid Semester Lab Module (Primate Anatomy and Locomotion) Change in Mean Developmental Level
Defining the Problem 42 2.05
(S.E. = 0.08)
2.00
(S.E. = 0.12)
− .05^
Developing a Plan to Solve the Problem 42 1.83
(S.E. = 0.07)
2.10
(S.E. = 0.09)
+ 0.27*^
Analyzing and Presenting Information 42 2.07
(S.E. = 0.07)
2.52
(S.E. = 0.08)
+ 0.45***^
Interpreting Findings and Solving the Problem 42 2.17
(S.E. = 0.08)
2.33
(S.E. = 0.11)
+ 0.16^
1. *p < .05;
2. ***p < .001;
3. 1 = Beginning; 2 = Developing; 3 = Appropriately Developed; 4 = Exemplary
4. ^Repeated Measures: Within subjects = pre- vs post-course, significant for Developing a Plan to Solve to the Problem [F (1,41) = 5.340, p < .05] and for Analyzing and Presenting Information [F (1,41) = 17.271, p < .001]; Between subjects = fall term vs spring term, no significant effects; No significant interaction 