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Table 1 List of key-concepts of evolution and alternative concepts including criteria for analysis

From: What can student-generated animations tell us about students’ conceptions of evolution?

E1—Variation between individuals Any differences in phenotypes–phenotypic variation. Indications of variation present
E2—Origin of variation Variation arises at a genetic level. Coupling between mutations and the variation of traits is necessary
E3—Inheritance (including reproduction) Offspring inherit traits from parents and pass them on to successive generations
E4—Differential survival Not all individuals in a generation survive to reproduce for reasons such as limitations in resources or predator attacks
E5—Change in population Favourable traits become more frequent in populations over generations
A1—Intentionality Directed evolution where a new trait appears after a change in the environment. Indication that changes occur because of an ultimate goal or by human-like intentions and ability to plan for a distant future
A2—Essentialism Transformation of all individuals within a population. Unifying essence instead of variation
A3—Natural selection as an event Major evolutionary changes occur in less than threea generations
T1—Organizational levels Connections between organizational levels, from genes to population
T2—Time Illustration/manipulation of tempo. (Fast forward or slow motion)
  1. aWe deemed that two generations are too short of a time for evolution, equivalent to an event. When both inheritance and change in populations after at least three generations were shown, we judged it as an illustration of that mating in several generations is needed for a new property to manifest