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Table 2 Analogy table comparing genetic evolution and cultural evolution as well as individual-level learning by general evolutionary concepts of variation, selection, and inheritance of traits. For an extended table and references, see Hanisch and Eirdosh (2020a, Table 1)

From: Educational potential of teaching evolution as an interdisciplinary science

Concept, process, principle Genetic evolution Cultural evolution Learning
How is variation of traits caused? Mutation, recombination Creativity, innovations, recombination of ideas, mistakes, reactions to new environments Creativity, innovations, social learning, recombination of ideas, mistakes, reactions to new environments
How does selection of traits occur? Higher chances of survival and reproduction compared to other trait variants Higher chances of survival and reproduction (natural selection); higher appeal or attractiveness of the trait (cultural selection) Success in achieving a goal
How are traits inherited, transmitted, or retained? Biological reproduction, mitosis/meiosis Social learning/imitation, teaching; technologies and infrastructure that endure Reinforcement, encoding of neural connections in the brain