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Table 1 Control variables and pretest performance scores (means with standard deviations; minimum and maximum in parentheses)

From: EvoSketch: Simple simulations for learning random and probabilistic processes in evolution, and effects of instructional support on learners’ conceptual knowledge

  Intervention Totala (n = 244)
Text (n = 39) Simulation (n = 66) Sim-interpret (n = 70) Sim-reflect (n = 69)
Age 15.39 ± 0.55 (15–17) 15.62 ± 0.74 (14–18) 15.57 ± 0.61 (15–17) 15.65 ± 0.66 (15–17) 15.58 ± 0.65 (14–18)
Biology gradeb 2.51 ± 0.73 (1–4) 2.61 ± 0.91 (1–5) 2.77 ± 0.75 (1–5) 2.77 ± 0.75 (1–5) 2.65 ± 0.85 (1–5)
C-test 13.05 ± 2.88 (8–20) 11.58 ± 3.34 (2–18) 12.90 ± 2.78 (7–17) 12.74 ± 2.77 (7–18) 12.52 ± 2.99 (2–20)
GBCK 6.41 ± 2.61 (2–11) 5.86 ± 2.31 (0–12) 6.23 ± 2.31 (1–12) 5.90 ± 2.10 (2–10) 6.07 ± 2.30 (0–12)
RaProEvo 10.08 ± 2.51 (3–15) 9.29 ± 2.92 (3–18) 9.93 ± 2.57 (3–17) 9.57 ± 2.78 (3–18) 9.68 ± 2.72 (3–18)
CINS-A 3.51 ± 1.68 (0–7) 3.45 ± 1.84 (0–10) 3.90 ± 1.87 (0–9) 3.84 ± 1.78 (1–9) 3.70 ± 1.81 (0–10)
  1. GBCK general biological content knowledge, C-test general language proficiency, RaProEvo conceptual knowledge of randomness and probability in evolutionary context, CINS-A conceptual inventory of natural selection
  2. aThe total sample is smaller than N = 269 because 25 participants were absent during the pretests
  3. bGrades are measured within the possible range of 1 (good performance) and 6 (poor performance)