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Table 1 Evolution education instruments measuring knowledge of evolutionary processes: potential to elicit scientific and naive ideas about adaptive and non-adaptive evolution

From: Testing validity inferences for Genetic Drift Inventory scores using Rasch modeling and item order analyses

Instrument Formata and target population Conceptions measuredb
NS-S NS-N GD-S GD-N
Bishop and Anderson’s diagnostic instrument (Bishop and Anderson 1990) Combination MC and ORc: undergraduates (introductory biology non-majors) Intended Intended Possibled Possibled
Concept Inventory of Natural Selection (CINS) (Anderson, Fisher and Norman 2002) 20 MC: undergraduates Intended Intended   
Assessing Contextual Reasoning about Natural Selection (ACORNS) (Nehm et al. 2012) Flexible number OR: undergraduates Intended Intended Possibled Possibled
Conceptual Assessment of Natural Selection (CANS) (Kalinowski et al. 2016) 24 MC: undergraduates (introductory biology majors) Intended Intended e  
Daphne Assessment for Natural Selection (DANS) (Furtak et al. 2014) 26 MC: high school Intended Intended   
Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI) (Price et al. 2014) 22 TF: undergraduates (upper-division biology majors)   Intended Intended Intended
Evo-devo concept inventory (Perez et al. 2013) 11 MC: undergraduates Intended Intended   
Measure of understanding of macroevolution (MUM) (Nadelson and Southerland 2009) 27 MC and 1 OR: undergraduate OR: possiblef OR: possiblef OR: possiblef OR: possiblef
  1. N.B. Readers interested in genetics-focused concept inventories that contain individual items dealing with non-adaptive change may wish to consult Price et al. (2014)
  2. a MCMultiple choice, OR Open response, TF True–false
  3. b NS-S natural selection-scientific ideas, NS-N natural selection-naive ideas, GD-S genetic drift-scientific ideas, GD-N genetic drift-naive ideas; “Intended” indicates that the instrument intentionally targeted ideas of this type
  4. c Bishop and Anderson’s instrument includes 2 OR, 3 MC with OR explanation, and 1 question about belief in evolution
  5. d Open response format affords the possibility of capturing reasoning about genetic drift, although, in line with instrument’s intent, scoring guide focuses on natural selection
  6. e Includes one question (item 20) asking whether chance plays a role in whether a cactus will produce a seedling
  7. f MC items address macroevolution. OR item asks student to explain how two species might have arisen from one. Authors state that item does not address speciation by means beyond natural selection, though they include a student response mentioning genetic drift