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Table 3 Study 1—Summary of hierarchical linear model results of pre and post-test data

From: Iterative design of a simulation-based module for teaching evolution by natural selection

Q: Do students show improvement on assessment after using the tutorial version of the module?
A: Yes. Students had a mean gain of 12.11 points after using the tutorial version of the module
Score ~ time
Fixed predictor Estimate ± SE p value
Intercept 64.01 ± 2.55 < 0.0001
Time 12.11 ± 0.41 < 0.0001
Q: Do advanced students perform better than beginner students on the assessment?
A: No. Advanced students did not perform better than beginner students
Score ~ time + type + time * type
Fixed predictor Estimate ± SE p-value
Intercept 62.25 ± 3.42 < 0.0001
Time 12.30 ± 0.50 < 0.0001
Type of class 4.25 ± 5.33 0.445
Time * type of class − 0.61 ± 0.89 0.496
  1. Both models include random factors for student (level 2) and class (level 3) to account for the lack of independence between scores. Full model taxonomy included in Additional file 1: Table S6; means for beginning and advanced classes shown in Additional file 1: Table S7 (2644 observations on 1322 students within 13 classes)