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Table 7 Summary of analyses of variance results for students’ mean difference in pre- to post-instruction number of misconceptions related to school, student, and teacher variables

From: Teachers teaching misconceptions: a study of factors contributing to high school biology students’ acquisition of biological evolution-related misconceptions

Source df F η p
High school variables:     
  Urban-centric classification 3 0.72 .07 .54
  Average daily membership 4 0.36 .05 .84
Student variables:     
  Grade 3 1.17 .08 .32
  Ethnicity 4 0.41 .06 .80
  Pre knowledge self-rating 4 1.14 .09 .34
  Post knowledge self-rating 4 1.09 .09 .36
Teacher variables:     
  Terminal degree 2 6.38 .15 <.01a
  Bachelor’s degree major 3 3.58 .15 .01a
  Years of teaching experience 4 7.07 .07 .59
  College evolution emphasis 3 1.85 .10 .14
  Knowledge rating 3 0.73 .06 .53
  Hours teaching evolution 4 3.95 .17 <.01a
  1. Analysis was conducted between specified groups of each source. aDifference between groups was statistically significant at p ≤ .01. df, degrees of freedom.