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Table 5 Summary of analyses of dependent-samples t -test results for students’ mean data related to specific variables

From: Teachers teaching misconceptions: a study of factors contributing to high school biology students’ acquisition of biological evolution-related misconceptions

Variable Test df Mean SD t p (two-tailed)
BEL Survey mean index score Pre 535 70.11 6.97 4.19 <.01a
  Post   71.72 8.80   
Number of misconceptions Pre 535 8.98 2.75 3.33 <.01a
  Post   9.46 2.59   
Student self-knowledge rating Pre 530 3.30 0.99 10.97 <.01a
  Post   2.77 0.90   
Student BEL Survey responses:       
  Strongly agree Pre 535 4.20 2.87 4.82 <.01a
  Post   4.88 3.04   
  Somewhat agree Pre 535 6.07 2.84 1.39 .17
  Post   6.28 3.09   
  Strongly disagree Pre 535 4.05 2.66 5.51 <.01a
  Post   4.80 2.98   
  Somewhat disagree Pre 535 4.62 2.80 1.07 .28
  Post   4.77 2.76   
  Undecided/never heard of it Pre 535 3.92 3.84 10.49 <.01a
  Post   2.15 2.53   
  1. aDifference between pre- and post-test means was statistically significant at p ≤ .01. BEL, Biological Evolution Literacy; df, degrees of freedom; post, student post-instruction; pre, student pre-instruction; SD, standard deviation.