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Table 1 Summary of results

From: Teaching undergraduate students to draw phylogenetic trees: performance measures and partial successes

I: Structure
a) All organisms connected b) All at ends of branches c) Single common ancestor
  Pre Post P   Pre Post P   Pre Post P
No Lab 0.71 0.87 <0.001 No Lab 0.30 0.78 <0.001 No Lab 0.35 0.58 0.001
Lab 0.69 0.91 0.001 Lab 0.31 0.82 <0.001 Lab 0.20 0.55 <0.001
P - 0.46   P - 0.85   P - 0.22  
d) Branching form e) Level of hierarchy f) Total structure score
  Pre Post P   Pre Post P   Pre Post P
No Lab 0.68 0.95 <0.001 No Lab 1.50 1.66 0.082 No Lab 3.6 4.8 <0.001
Lab 0.70 0.95 <0.001 Lab 1.51 1.65 0.13 Lab 3.4 4.9 <0.001
P - 0.87   P - 0.26   P - 0.51  
II: Classification mistakes
g) Total mistakes h) Vertebrate sub-groups i) Invertebrate sub-groups
  Pre Post P   Pre Post P   Pre Post P
No Lab 6.5 6.5 0.77 No Lab 3.7 3.5 0.33 No Lab 2.8 3.0 0.44
Lab 6.4 5.5 0.10 Lab 3.5 2.8 0.05 Lab 2.9 2.7 0.56
P - 0.25   P - 0.54   P - 0.42  
III: Specific misconceptions
j) Whale-shark-fish k) Bat-bird l) Bat-butterfly
  Pre Post P   Pre Post P   Pre Post P
No Lab 0.60 0.49 0.12 No Lab 0.55 0.45 0.23 No Lab 0.34 0.12 <0.001
Lab 0.64 0.40 <0.001 Lab 0.58 0.38 0.015 Lab 0.27 0.13 0.037
P - 0.36   P - 0.47   P - 0.70  
m) Butterfly-bird
  Pre Post P         
No Lab 0.30 0.15 0.012         
Lab 0.31 0.13 0.006         
P - 0.86          
IV: Rationale for organization
n) Diet o) Habitat p) Taxonomy
  Pre Post P   Pre Post P   Pre Post P
No Lab 0.05 0.06 1.00 No Lab 0.46 0.52 0.92 No Lab 0.54 0.68 0.089
Lab 0.08 0.03 0.44 Lab 0.59 0.47 0.22 Lab 0.58 0.74 0.042
P - 0.109   P - 0.068   P - 0.99  
q) Morphology
  Pre Post P         
No Lab 0.79 0.65 0.089         
Lab 0.85 0.62 0.007         
P - 0.88          
  1. Each smaller table compares the four samples described in Figure 2. Numbers less than one are fractions of total number of students; those greater than one are levels or total scores. P-values at the ends of rows reflect pre-post comparisons; those below columns reflect comparisons of Lab and No Lab groups.