Skip to main content

Table 3 Means, standard deviations, alpha coefficients for each construct, and the standardized factor loading for each item of the EALS- SF

From: Evolutionary Attitudes and Literacy Survey (EALS): Development and Validation of a Short Form

Construct/Variable Items Standardized factor loading α M SD
Political Activity    .88 2.86 1.25
  To what degree are you political? .714    
  To what degree do your political views influence your daily life? .940    
  To what degree do your political views influence your decisions? .898    
Religious Activity    .96 4.07 1.95
  To what degree are you religious? .943    
  To what degree does religion impact your daily life? .959    
  To what degree does your religion influence your decisions? .960    
  Religion is especially important to me because it answers many of my questions about the meaning of life. A .751    
Conservative Self Identity    .87 4.05 1.55
  To what degree are you conservative? .866    
  In general, how do you self identify politically? B .835    
  In general how liberal/conservative are you on Economic issues (welfare, taxation, free market policies, etc)? C .751    
Attitudes Toward Life D    .83 4.38 1.69
  Life begins at conception. .813    
  After conception, a developing human is only a cluster of cells, and it makes no sense to discuss its moral condition. (R) .688    
  All stages of human life- embryo, fetus, child, adult- should have the same legal protections. .860    
Intelligent Design Fallacies    .89 3.16 1.32
  There is scientific evidence that humans were created by a supreme being or intelligent designer. .708    
  There is no evidence that humans evolved from other animals. .790    
  There are no transitional fossils (remains of life forms that illustrate an evolutionary transition). .812    
  Complex biological systems cannot come about by slight successive modifications (i.e., they are irreducibly complex). .692    
  Evolution is a theory in crisis. .770    
  Natural selection cannot create complex structures; It is like a tornado blowing through a junkyard and creating a 747. .736    
Young Earth Creationist Beliefs    .87 3.04 1.45
  I read the bible literally. .749    
  The Earth isn’t old enough for evolution to have taken place. .708    
  There was a time when humans and dinosaurs lived on earth together. .461    
  Present animal diversity can be explained by the Great Flood. .755    
  Adam and Eve of Genesis are our universal ancestors of the entire human race. .835    
  All modern species of land vertebrates are descended from those original animals on the ark. .870    
Moral Objections    .81 2.33 1.21
  People who accept evolution as fact are immoral. .787    
  If you accept evolution, you really can’t believe in God. .663    
  Darwinism strips meaning from our lives. .844    
Social Objections    .83 2.71 1.17
  The theory of evolution has contributed to racism. .789    
  The theory of evolution has contributed to sexism. .825    
  The theory of evolution has contributed to genocide (the deliberate killing of a group based on nationality, race, politics, or culture). .751    
Distrust of the Scientific Enterprise    .79 3.00 1.06
  Contemporary methods of determining the age of fossils and rocks are untrustworthy. E .776    
  The data used to support evolution is untrustworthy. .860    
  The available data are ambiguous as to whether evolution actually occurs. F .622    
Relevance of Evolutionary Theory    .89 4.76 1.24
  Evolutionary theory is highly relevant for biology. .872    
  The theory of evolution helps us understand human origins. .899    
  Evolutionary theory is highly relevant for the social sciences (e.g., anthropology, psychology, sociology). .793    
  Evolutionary theory is highly relevant for the humanities (e.g., history, literature, philosophy). .578    
  Evolutionary theory is relevant to our everyday lives. .672    
Genetic Literacy    .76 4.92 0.95
  Humans share a majority of their genes with chimpanzees. D .817    
  Humans share more than half of their genes with mice.D .670    
  Humans have somewhat less than half of the DNA in common with chimpanzees. D(R) .555    
  Mutations are never beneficial. D(R) .635    
Evolutionary Knowledge    .77 4.91 0.89
  In most populations, more offspring are born than can survive. .464    
  Mutations can be passed down to the next generation. .655    
  Increased genetic variability makes a population more resistant to extinction. .758    
  The more recently species share a common ancestor, the more closely related they are. .728    
  Mutations occur all the time. .559    
Misconceptions about Evolution    .49 4.06 0.88
  Characteristics acquired during the lifetime of an organism are passed down to that individual’s offspring. .270    
  Evolution means progression towards perfection. .600    
  Evolution is a linear progression from primitive to advanced species. .697    
Knowledge about the Scientific Enterprise    .78 5.55 1.05
  For scientific evidence to be deemed adequate, it must be reproducible by others. .683    
  Scientific ideas can be tested and supported by feelings and beliefs. (R) .710    
  Scientific explanations can be supernatural. (R) .719    
  Good theories give rise to testable predictions. .609    
Self Exposure to Evolution    .81 2.37 0.81
  I’ve watched evolution related videos on the web (e.g.,, YouTube). .615    
  I read science magazines featuring evolution (e.g., Discover, National Geographic, Nature). .827    
  I’ve watched nature shows that discussed evolution (e.g., PBS/Nova, Discovery, National Geographic) .837    
Youth Exposure to Evolution    .54 2.50 0.73
  I have visited natural history museums on field trips or with family. .672    
  As a child, I attended science and nature camps (e.g., Outdoor Ed Lab, local nature centers or zoos). .460    
  How much training in evolution did you receive in high school? .453    
  1. ASee also Dudley and Cruise (1990)
  2. Bcf ANES 2009
  3. CFrom Carney et al. (2008)
  4. DFrom Miller et al. (2006)
  5. ESee also Ingram and Nelson (2006)
  6. FSee also Rutledge and Sadler (2007)
  7. (R) Indicates reverse scored items
  8. Table 1 from Hawley et al. (2011) reports the item variance explained by the underlying construct. Because the above model was identified by fixing the variances of the latent constructs to 1.00, the standardized factor loading for a particular item can be squared to determine the item’s variance explained by the underlying factor